Disclaimer: This site is deployed as a reference. It was forked from the PyPSA-animation Github repository.
In these scenarios 95% of today's electricity demand in Europe is covered with renewable energy. This corresponds to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the electricity sector by 95% compared to Europe's 1990 electricity emissions.
In each scenario, different volumes of cross-border transmission are built. Transmission helps to balance wind and solar across the continent. With less transmission, more storage must be built to balance variable renewables in time instead.
For each country the breakdown of electricity suppliers is shown in the top half-pie-chart (i.e. all generators and discharging storage), while the breakdown of electricity consumers is shown in the bottom half-pie-chart (i.e. all electrical demand and charging storage). If the half-pie-charts have the same radius, than supply exactly balances demand at the node; if the supply half-pie is bigger, then the country has to export its excess electricity; if the consumer half-pie is bigger, then the country has to import electricity.
These results are taken from the research paper The benefits of cooperation in a highly renewable European electricity network (free-to-download: postprint). The full datasets (input data, code, output for every hour of the weather year 2011) are freely available online. The results were simulated with the free software PyPSA. The code for the animations is also freely available at the github repository PyPSA-animation. Maps are made with Natural Earth.
(Additional legend: transmission costs in black and gas fuel costs in orange; distribution grid and ancillary services costs not included)
Kombikraftwerk II by Fraunhofer IWES
RE Explorer by NREL
Internet of Energy by Lappeenranta University of Technology